In the following the theory behind some of the components of the 2WD differential drive robot are explained.


Encoders are attached to motors to report incremental movements which can be used to measure the position displacement and even speed or (noisy) acceleration. There are different types of encoders but for the differential drive robot we are focusing on rotational incremental encoders. Such encoders are used to measure the speed of a rotating motor or wheel. There exist also quadrature encoders which can measure not only the wheel speed but also the direction the wheel is turning.